March 30, 2019

Interpretation of designations in the names of the roms (ROMs codes)

What is ROM?


ROM image (ROM-image or just ROM) is a binary file containing a copy of data from a ROM chip, usually from a game console cartridge, from a computer’s firmware, or information about the configuration of an arcade machine’s motherboard. The term is often used in the context of emulation: old games or programs recorded in the ROM of an old computer are copied to a file (dump) and can be run on a modern computer using an emulator program.

The so-called roms (dumps) of cartridges and images of disks with games are usually marked with special codes in file names. The decoding of these codes is given below:

Standard codes


[!] - Approved, good dump. Often this is an exact copy of the cartridge without data corruption. Does not contain hacks and modifications.

[!p] - Unreviewed (not tested) dump. This dump is closest to the original cartridge.

[a] - Another option (alternative version of the game). Sometimes it is better than the original, as it contains fixes and improvements (cheat codes from the original version may not work on it).

[b] - Bad dump (some data in such a dump is lost or distorted). Usually such images contain image output errors or simply do not work.

[f] - Corrected dump. Changes are specially made to the dump to correct or improve the work on the memory card or emulator.

[o] - Excessive dump. This dump contains extra data that means nothing. They do not affect the game in any way, they just make ROM more.

[p] - Dump the pirated version of the game. Usually, pirates insert their own copyrights, remove the name of the company or damage it.

[h] - Modified dump. The dump was changed, for example, in order to change the title or country code, insert an intro group or change game content.

[t] - Version with the trainer. Such a dump was cracked in order to insert cheats into it or add a menu of cheats so that they can be used in the game.

[T+XXX] - The latest translation to another language.

[T-XXX] - Outdated translation to another language.

(REVXX) - Revision number (00 - the earliest).

(VX.X) - Version number (1.0 is the earliest).

(PRG#) - Program revision.

(NG-Dump Known) - Good dump not found.

(M#) - The number of languages (selected in the menu).

[h#C] - Hacked internal information of the cartridge.

[hI] - An intro from the release group has been added to the cartridge.

[hIR] - Intro release of the group has been removed from the cartridge.

(PAL) - European region.

(NTSC) - American region.

Country codes

  • (A) - Asia / Australia
  • (As) - Asia
  • (B) - Brazil
  • (C) - Canada
  • (Ch) - China
  • (D) - Holland
  • (E) - Europe
  • (F) - France
  • (G) - Germany
  • (HK) - Hong Kong
  • (I) - Italy
  • (J) - Japan
  • (K) - Korea
  • (Nl) - Holland
  • (No) - Norway
  • (R) - Russia
  • (S) - Spain
  • (Sw) - Sweden
  • (U) - USA
  • (UK) - Great Britain
  • (W) - World
  • (Unl) - Not licensed
  • (PD) - Public domain
  • (Unk) - Unknown country

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